Marcus Cappiello/ Russell Cohen Hoffing (UC Riverside)
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Russell Cohen Hoffing
Title: Learning What to Expect for Inhibitory Control
Abstract: Learning outcomes have substantial variability from participant to participant and my work attempts to understand which factors influence this variability in the context of inhibitory control. Inhibitory control is the ability suppress motor or cognitive processes that are interfering with goal-directed behavior. Recently, studies investigating inhibitory control have shown that participants not only resolve interference with inhibitory control but also prepare inhibitory responses. These results suggest a prominent role of expectations in inhibitory control performance. Thus, to the extent one learns the statistical properties of an inhibitory control task one can prepare an inhibitory response and improve performance. I will present work that manipulates statistical relationships of upcoming inhibitory responses and how individual differences like those with schizotypal and autistic traits, who are known to be impaired in learning statistical relationships, influence performance on a task switching task.
Title: Second chances reveal more information in working memory
Abstract: Working memory is thought to have a limited storage capacity, which manifests in guessing responses for items outside of memory. Here, we show that some information about these high-error responses is still retained in working memory. Participants memorized an array of colors and then reported a probed itemís color on a color wheel. Many responses were far from the true color, which is often interpreted as a failure to store the item. However, when participants were then given two choices and had to choose the correct color, performance was well above chance regardless of participantsí error on the first response. We investigate possible reasons for this phenomenon in five experiments.